How Are Mountains Formed?
Mountains are created by slow movements in the earth’s crust. In some places, heat and pressure deep inside the earth slowly buckle the earth’s crust into giant folds. In other places, the pressure breaks the earth’s crust into huge blocks, or pushes it up into high domes.
Some mountains are formed when molten rock deep in the earth forces its way to the surface and piles up into a cone-shaped peak This is known as a volcano. Over millions of years, wind, water and ice erode the mountains, and produce an endless variety of mountain shapes.
A mountain is a geological landform that rises above the surrounding land. Typically a mountain will rise at least 1,000 feet above sea level. Some mountains exceed 10,000 feet above sea level with the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest, rising 29,036 feet. Small mountains (below 1,000 feet) are usually called hills.
A mountain may be home to many different biomes including temperate forest, taiga forest, tundra, and grassland. Around 20 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered with mountains. There are mountains and mountain ranges in the ocean. Many islands are actually the tops of mountains.